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Toxic Masculinity — Part 1: origin, concept and relation to gun violence in the USA

By Kaja Grabińska

Since antiquity, masculinity (or so called manhood) has been shaped by historical and cultural processes. There is no one concept of masculinity as it is not based on biology or history — this process is rather dynamic.[1] Masculinity has been in a state of constant flux as a result of its contact with different ideologies and cultures. However, despite such dynamism, masculinity has maintained a central tenet — the portrayal of man as a strong figure, be it a brave warrior in the ancient world or a powerful and influential businessman in the twenty-first century.[2]

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