Sustainable Peace and Sustainable Development

By Anh Ha (Fall 2017)



Table of Contents

Executive Summary

UN Framework

IEP Framework

Why Should We Invest In Peace

The Importance of Partnership

Conclusion




1. Executive Summary

This research is an overview of the relationship between sustainable development and sustainable peace through the works have done by the United Nations, especially the SDGs, and researches about positive peace from the Institute for Economics and Peace.

The seventeen Sustainable Development Goals implemented by the United Nations seek to resolve a wide range of issues. SDG 16, or the “peace goal”, has largely focusing on achieving and promoting peace and justice and strong institutions (that are strong enough to achieve sustainable peace).

“The success of the 2030 Agenda will depend on our ability to sustain stable, secure and inclusive societies governed by states that are essentially trustworthy, responsive to constituents, free of corruption and committed to eliminating violence, in part by reigning in coercive security institutions.”

The bold and clear message from Goal 16 has assure that “There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable peace” In this research, we will attest this relationship between sustainable peace and sustainable development through two different perspectives coming from two accredited organization, the United Nations and the Institute for Peace and Economics.

Under the United Nations case, this research focuses directly on the 17 objectives under SGD Agenda as well as the end of fragmentation of the UN system with the later compulsory reform of the Un and the conflict prevention is needed for the UN through the SDGs. Another way to show the relationship between peace and development is through IEP’s positive peace with 8 pillars and their direct effect to build globally sustainable peaceful societies.

Additionally, this research also again stress out the importance of putting for economic investment in peacebuilding programs and the innovative to finance peace as well as the importance of partnership in order to enhance the relationship between sustainable peace and sustainable development.



2. UN Framework

The General Assembly, which organized a discussion on synergies between the Sustainable Development Program to 2030 and the maintenance of peace, heard the Secretary-General of the United Nations recognizing the "serious failure" of development in a unequal and asymmetric world. This international interdependence demands to go to the bottom.

Mr. António Guterres identified the link between failing economies, the fragility of societies and institutions, and conflicts. He called for a global response that addresses the underlying causes of conflict to ensure sustainable development.

This understanding is gaining ground in the United Nations.

Peacebuilding and development should no longer be seen as post-conflict activities but as full-fledged elements of a peace process.

This response, he said, must integrate peace, sustainable development and human rights in a holistic way, from design to implementation. "Our priority is prevention: conflict prevention, the worst effects of natural disasters and other human threats to the cohesion and well-being of societies,

Security and peace will always be in danger as long as there is no sustainable development.

He thought it important to remember that the links between the 2030 Program and the sustainability of peace were to be found not only in objective 16 of the program but in all 17 objectives whose realization would be a "huge" contribution to lasting peace .

This High-level Dialogue should be seen as an effort to reinforce each other's aims.

An innovative step that requires the United Nations to revisit the old system that did not work

CINU Algiers. Accessed December 13, 2017.

http://algiers.sites.unicnetwork.org/2017/01/25/lonu-souligne-linterdependance-et-les-synergies-entre-une-paix-durable-et-un-developpement-durable/.


Sustainable development goals (SGD)

The objectives and targets guide action to lead over the next 15 years in areas that are crucial. The program 2030 is a unique opportunity to address root causes conflict.

Humanity, the planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships are Masters words 17 SDG's.

Humanity: eliminate poverty and hunger, in all forms and in all their dimensions, and ensure that all humans can achieve their potential under conditions of dignity and equality and in a healthy environment. Why it is necessary to establish a access Universal education and health care.


The Planet: combat degradation of the planet, in using consumption patterns and sustainable production, ensuring sustainable management of its natural resources and taking emergency steps to fight against climate change, so it can meet the needs of the present and future generations. (Objectives 6 and 7) as the distribution unfair of natural resources, overuse of natural resources, the absence to access of natural resources, including the Earth, water and electricity (article 6 and 7), the expropriation land worse and extend conflicts. Pressure on the environment brings a negative impact with climate change and population pressure and urbanization (objective 11) have and will continue to have effects deep if we are not work so draconian. It should be so sure equitable distribution and Universal revenues of natural resources enforce peace accords and implement treaties and resolutions on the exploration of Minerals. Sustainable management at all can be an asset and contribute to the consolidation of companies peaceful and resilient. In this program 2030 is a tool prevention.


Prosperity: ensure that all human beings have a life prosperous and fulfilling and economic progress, social and technological is done in harmony with nature (OBJ 15 on deforestation).


Peace: promote the advent of companies peaceful, fair and inclusive, paid fear and violence. Indeed, it can not be sustainable development without peace or peace without sustainable development.

Partnerships: met so world around a state of mind of solidarity reinforced for sustainable development. Through the participation of all countries all stakeholders and all peoples, their goal is to mobilize the means necessary for the implementation of this program, by favor the needs of poorest and most vulnerable. Partnerships will be with governments, civil society, regional organizations, international financial institutions, universities, the business sector but not that there will also need a collaboration regional and international reinforced in order to address défits socio-economic threat peace. They will be the point listening to the UN on the ground, which is located be either under informed or informed, in that it is necessary to find a middle ground for direct effort. Without mobilization wide and an approach from the basis at the top, efforts for this project does will experience no success, that's why it takes support NGOs engaged in the field of peace, human rights and develop sustainable. This Alliance will allow the United nations to be better Army to work on its piliers.un partnership inclusive, will break barriers, work together is the most complete opposite to the global challenges.

In 2018, will be held the conference of fphn on the "transformation to companies sustainable and resilient" it will focus on the following objectives: odd 6 (clean water and sanitation), 7 (clean energy and affordable), 11 (cities and sustainable communities), 12 (consumption and production responsible), 15 (ecosystem land sustainable) and 17 (partnerships for the achievement of). These six targets will be in the heart of debate forum policy high-level representing this year, a challenge especially for the Ministry of transition ecological and solidarity which ensures the implementation of most odd targeted. These objectives all contribute so certain to peace, However, the goal 16 rest far as it allows a solid Foundation that will allow the application of other development goals sustainable as well as the objective of lasting peace. We found in a link causal, when we demonstrates the narrow link between the companies low, institutions and States unstable and the emergence of conflicts and sustainability others. In this one will focus on companies peaceful that article 16 represents, and demonstrates although without the realization of the objective 16, the rest of the objectives of 2030 are Unfortunately inapplicable. The objective 16 allows their achievement with a result of peace on long-term.

"Le programme de Développement Durable." United Nations. Accessed December 13, 2017.

http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/fr/development-agenda/.

A) Objective 16 of sustainable development: the promotion of peaceful societies

These consequences have their responsibility for the challenges that the 2030 objectives.

PETER THOMSON, President of the General Assembly, recalled that, in the same way that the Sustainable Development Program recognizes the importance of promoting peaceful, just and inclusive societies to achieve each of its 17 objectives, the perpetuation of peace recognize the importance of sustainable development for the maintenance of peace.

Objective 16 promotes several points which in fact encompass only one objective: to create peaceful societies through:

Institutional strengthening to be more accountable, more transparent, more efficient. At the national level, governments are responsible for ensuring the conditions for the implementation of the 2030 objectives by putting an end to conflict situations. Without forgetting to include the importance of parliaments.

Respect for human rights within states but also within the UN system.

Access to justice is a state of law that represents the promotion and protection of human rights, which embodies a very effective means of conflict prevention. This is the key to a guarantee of peaceful, equitable and inclusive development. Inclusion means gender, age, culture, ethnicity, language and religion, which recognizes the equal rights of all human beings. Inclusion is in other words, a base that expands, eliminates blind spots and fortifies the foundations of the future we want. It is necessary to eradicate inequalities and corruption, independent judges

16-4, the idea of ​​integrating disarmament and non-proliferation leads to a significant reduction in illicit financial flows and arms trafficking, as well as in enhancing the recovery of stolen goods and in combating all forms of organized crime.

Good governance and human rights are a prerequisite for any goal of peace and development. Governments represent a large part of the success.

In the triptych "peace security, development and human rights", the latter is the link between the other two. Human rights violations always precede crises and conflicts.

1) End of fragmentation of the UN system

Program 2030, "Never before has the international community given itself such a strong mandate to break the dividing lines between the three pillars of the United Nations, namely" peace and security, sustainable development and respect for human rights" summarized the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of Switzerland.

This program allows for an open-ended approach that integrates the three pillars of the action, where the Secretary-General, the Presidents of the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the Peacebuilding Commission meet. to establish together the solid foundations of a lasting peace through the coherence of the three pillars of the UN

Many speakers expressed their enthusiasm for the rapprochement between the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, which will work hand-in-hand.

Even though the UN is determined with the agreements of the SDG's and the Paris agreement on climate change. It remains no less criticized in its failures, surely because of its compartmentalization. It is in this respect that reform efforts and the establishment of an executive committee to improve the work of the United Nations enable a better future, but this in strict compliance with their respective mandates defines by the charter.

A greater synergy is being sought in order to ensure a comprehensive approach to peace efforts. In such cases, these objectives will remain hampered if the United Nations continues to apply double standards (unilateral measures).

Conclusion A change in strategy, for optimization of the results of lasting peace has been requested, speaks of executive committee when the architecture of peace-building: ECOSOC and the commission of consolidation of peace and the central place of the development in the service of peace, perceived as an executive committee.

This measure allows for a better UN capacity to integrate the 3 pillars of its mandate (peace and security, human rights and development).

The rapprochement of the Department of Political Affairs with peacekeeping operations should bring a joint program with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

2) Compulsory reform of the United Nations

According to Mr. Antonio Guterres, the United Nations must reform to accompany the States for this global project of Sustainable development and sustainable peace.

According to three areas:

the first concerns the maintenance of peace

70% of the UN budget for peacekeeping operations is unnecessary. Conclusion the budget is poorly deployed. Emphasis should be placed on the prevention of violent conflicts and the perpetuation of peace through the various means of prevention available to the United Nations system.

Such as diplomacy, mediation, negotiation and the use of office vouchers can be used after identifying the underlying causes of conflicts by the countries of the world and by establishing peace, sustainable development and human rights. the man.

Restore the balance between funding for conflict prevention and peacebuilding and peacekeeping, which is more costly.

This requires an assessment of successes and failures as well as the implementation of the peace agenda as are the SDG's or the operational activities of the UN system.

The second concerns development

There is a need to improve the coordination and accountability of development efforts, such as collective outcomes, coherence and integration in financing arrangements rather than agency competition

The Third concerns the administration of the United Nations

Too often limited by their own rules, the UN should put in place new mechanisms and procedures. The Secretary General spoke of a simplified, decentralized and flexible system rooted in a culture of transparency and respect for the principle of responsibility.

CINU Algiers. Accessed December 13, 2017. http://algiers.sites.unicnetwork.org/2017/01/25/lonu-souligne-linterdependance-et-les-synergies-entre-une-paix-durable-et-un-developpement-durable/.

3) Conflict prevention is needed for the United Nations through the SDG'S

This will allow for a change for more efficiency and consistency.

From a culture of reaction to prevention, the international community has excellent tools in this regard.


UN tools:

Through its own tools, the United Nations Joint Program for Development (UNDG), the Department of Political Affairs on Building National Conflict Prevention Capacities (UNDP-DAP), the Peacebuilding Fund, UN-WORLD BANK special assignment, human rights entities in the field of mediation and vouchers in the Department of Political Affairs, allows the emergence of peaceful societies, can be used in prevention as for conflict resolution. The Security Council can also be an important tool for sustainable peace, which must be modern and representative, working with the Human Rights Council.

Whether these tools are fully used


Disarmament


4) Identifying the causes of conflict is the basis for thinking of SDGs

Through the gaps left by the Millennium Development Goals, which we can find listed on the SDG's website

Some 800 million people still live in extreme poverty and 795 million still suffer from hunger.

  • Between 2000 and 2015, the number of out-of-school children decreased by almost half. But 57 million children are still denied the right to primary education.

  • Gender inequality persists despite progress in many areas, including an increase in the number of female parliamentarians and girls enrolled in school. Women continue to face discrimination in access to work, economic assets and participation in public or private decision-making.

  • Significant economic gaps remain between the poorest and richest households and between rural and urban areas. Children from the poorest quintile of the population are more than twice as likely as those from the richest quintile to suffer from stunting and four times as likely to be out of school. Improvements in sanitation cover only half of the rural population, compared to 82% of urban areas.

  • If the under-five mortality rate declined by 53 per cent between 1990 and 2015, infant mortality continues to be increasingly concentrated in the poorest regions and in the first month of life.

Achieving sustainable development goals is the most powerful tool for conflict prevention.

The links between conflict, poverty, inequality, human rights and the destruction of the environment can no longer be ignored.

Their implementation must therefore be carried out in concert.

Facilitate follow-up and review

Inclusive monitoring and review mechanisms are essential to the action and understanding of the 2030 Agenda.

OECD country studies, peer reviews and mutual learning mechanisms across a range of policy areas (economy, investment, environment, energy, migration, education, development cooperation, etc.) play a crucial role in pooling lessons learned and knowledge, improving policies and practices, and building trust and mutual respect among partners.

The OECD is adapting its various assessment and learning mechanisms, including the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), to the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

OECD’S STUDY: THE EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE AND FRAGILITY ON PEACE

OECD since 2005 has been studying trends and flows of financial resources to states and fragile or conflict-affected economies.

It responds to growing concerns about the impact of fragility on stability and development, particularly in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the international commitment to leave no one behind.

Douglas Frantz, Deputy Secretary-General of the OECD, announces that investment in human resources and capital to support development efforts and the need to address the triple bottom line of poverty, violence and fragility are essential. It is easy to lose sight of these persistent vulnerabilities created by weak institutions, political violence, extremism and poverty in countries and regions vulnerable to fragility, violence and conflict.

The truth is that if the challenges facing these countries are not met, progress in the fight against climate change and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals will not advance, and millions of human beings will remain stuck in the world. poverty and conflict, the migration crisis will remain unanswered and extremism in its violent manifestations will continue to flourish.

The figures in the new OECD report, Fragility States 2016: Understanding Violence, show that 2014 was the second most deadly year since the end of the Cold War; the year 2015, the third. Conflict-related deaths reached 167,000 in 2015, of which 55,000 were in the Syrian Arab Republic.

the most vulnerable are civilians living in weak states and the perpetrators of violence are often militias on one side or the other.

To remedy this, we need to review development aid by developing a new multidimensional model to measure fragility and monitor it. Understand the forces that are at the root of conflict and poverty, from the rise of urban militia to widespread corruption. The symptoms must be analyzed to suggest a remedy. For that, we must target development finance by focusing it on fragile contexts and conflict zones in all sectors, in order to reduce deficits and focus efforts.

Only when policymakers and their partners in civil society and the private sector have fully grasped the risks will they be able to coordinate their efforts to reduce the most serious dangers and restore vital hope to those who are most at risk. Making the planet sustainable, by providing education to as many people as possible and reducing the gap between rich and poor to mitigate the impacts on climate change, is a key goal. It can only be achieved if equal attention is paid to the fate of those trapped in tenacious conflicts and fragile contexts that offer no hope for a better life.


The OECD demonstrates the link between violence, fragility and financing:

  • The OECD in its report STATES OF FRAGILITY 2016: UNDERSTANDING VIOLENCE, begins with a synthesis of the main trends and conclusions to emerge around the issue of violence - its magnitude, impact and cost.

  • This synthesis on violence is followed by a review of the OECD Framework on Fragility, which lists the five dimensions of fragility, based on a list of 56 countries considered fragile in the world today.

The complex interplay between fragility and violence calls for an evolution in the approach of the international community. Understanding the relationship between violence and fragility will lead to more informed decisions on development, crisis management, humanitarian assistance, conflict and violence prevention and mitigation, and global security. We must take cognizance of the driving forces and the effects of social, interpersonal, criminal, political or extremist violence so that it can be seen in international interventions. Financing for development is not in line with the reality of interpersonal violence, which is outside its scope when it is the main source of human insecurity. It remains focused on political conflict, and on the capacity of public institutions, which is only one aspect of a much broader problem and, as a result, can have more negative than positive consequences in empowering corrupt elites. , by digging inequalities, and / or by perpetuating marginalization.

It is now recognized that fragility is a multidimensional phenomenon and its challenges are universal and not just the preserve of developing countries; this point has been cited in the post-2015 development framework, which is why the OECD has developed a universal and multidimensional framework on fragility.

Fragility is defined as the combination of risk exposure and insufficient capacity on the part of the state, a system and / or local populations to manage, absorb or mitigate these risks. Fragility can lead to damaging spillovers, including violence, institutional breakdown, displacement, humanitarian crises, and other emergencies.

On this point, the new OECD Framework represents a major shift in the conceptual approach to fragility. describes fragility around five dimensions. Each of these are measured by calculating the accumulation and conjunction of risks with respect to the ability of the state, a system and / or local populations to manage, absorb or mitigate the consequences of these risks.


The five dimensions of fragility

  • Economic dimension Vulnerability to risks caused by weak economic foundations and human capital (eg macroeconomic shocks, inegalitarian growth or high youth unemployment).

  • Environmental dimension Vulnerability to environmental, climate and health risks that affect the lives and livelihoods of citizens. These include natural disasters, pollution and epidemics.

  • Political dimension Vulnerability to risks inherent in political processes, events or decisions; political inclusivity deficit (including elites); level of transparency, corruption and the ability of society to adapt to change and avoid oppression.

  • Security dimension Vulnerability of global security to violence and crime, including political violence and social violence.

  • Societal dimension Vulnerability to risks that threaten social cohesion induced by vertical inequalities and horizontal (inequalities between culturally defined or constructed groups and social fractures, for example). For this the OECD proposes effective programming in contexts of fragility requires effective funding.

The OECD Multidimensional Framework first examines the 2016 results on fragility and explains its different dimensions - economic, environmental, political, security and societal - through 56 fragile or even extremely fragile contexts. He then studies this group in terms of population, regional grouping, macroeconomic situation (GDP, inflation, poverty and extreme poverty), and urbanization rates. All of these elements make it possible to paint a current picture of fragility in today's world.


Fragility is a dimension that has also strongly influenced the definition of the Sustainable Development Goals.


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize that violence and fragility are major obstacles to development. In this context, the SDGs address fragility in a cross-cutting way, from multiple angles. Objective 16 on peace, justice and institution-building deals more specifically with the direct and indirect manifestations of fragility, particularly in its political and security dimensions. However, each of the 17 objectives relates, directly or indirectly, to the many risk factors and means of adaptation related to frailty.


Economic fragility is studied mainly from the point of view of its close link with poverty reduction, for example through target 8.5 on full and productive employment; Target 8.6, on employment, education and training of young people; and target 8.7 on forced labor, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labor.


Environmental fragility is addressed in Goals 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Goal 11 focuses specifically on disaster risk reduction (Target 11.5); it is complemented by Target 11.b, which targets the inclusion of all, the rational use of resources, adaptation to the effects of climate change and its mitigation, and the resilience of cities and human settlements to disasters.


Political fragility is at the heart of Target 16.4, which aims to reduce illicit financial flows, arms trafficking, organized crime, and strengthen the return of stolen goods; target 16.5 on bribery and bribery; target 16.6 on effective, accountable and transparent institutions; of the

Target 16.7 on dynamism, openness, participatory character and representativeness of decision-making processes; and Target 16.8, on the participation of developing countries in global governance institutions.


Security fragility, particularly with regard to direct forms of violence, is covered by Target 16.1, which provides measures of the number of violent deaths, and by Target 16.2, with indicators of the level of abuse. and violence against children. Other targets focus on security-related capabilities, such as Target 16.3, which aims to promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and to provide equal access to justice for all. ; not to mention the target 16a whose purpose is to support national institutions responsible for strengthening the means of preventing violence and combating terrorism and crime.


Societal fragility is anchored in the SDGs in a number of ways. Goal 10 is fully dedicated to reducing social inequalities, including through increasing the incomes of the poorest 40 per cent (Target 10.1); the social, economic and political integration of all people (Target 10.3); and equal opportunities and the fight against discrimination (target 10.4). Gender equality is covered by Goal 5, in particular Target 5.2, which aims to eliminate all forms of violence against women and girls; and Target 5.3 which aims to eliminate all harmful practices, such as child marriage, early or forced marriage and female genital mutilation. In addition, Goals 1, 2, 3 and 4 deal more generally with aspects of human capital that are important variables in reducing fragility, with a focus on poverty reduction, hunger health and well-being, or quality education.


Sustainable development goals in the face of violence

While the outlook looks bleak, unprecedented favorable circumstances are notable. Global agreements in 2015-16 are optimistic. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) outlined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development emphasize the threat that violence poses to human security and global peace and security. Achieving the SDGs is imperative by understanding the role of violence and fragility. SDG 16, in particular, aims to address the fact that the number of people exposed to violence is much greater than before, and as the foundation of all the other SDGs argues that sustainable development can not flourish. only in the presence of security.

This is demonstrated through the Sustainable Development Goal 16 and violence.

Sustainable Development Goal 16 aims to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, to ensure access to justice for all, and to establish effective institutions at all levels. , responsible and open to all.

This goal is important because high levels of gun violence and insecurity have a devastating impact on a country's development, penalize the growth of its economy and often result in disputes that can last for generations. Sexual violence, crime, exploitation and torture are also generally prevalent in conflict contexts or in the absence of the rule of law, and countries must take measures to protect those most at risk.

The SDGs aim to significantly reduce all forms of violence, and to work with governments and communities to find lasting solutions to conflict and insecurity. Strengthening the rule of law and promoting human rights are fundamental elements of this process, along with the reduction of illicit arms trafficking and strengthening the participation of developing countries in global governance .

Sources: United Nations General Assembly (2015) and UNDP (2016).

"Institutions and Stability." Institutions and Stability. Accessed December 13, 2017. http://g4dpblog.blogspot.com/.



3. IEP Framework

The positive peace index (PPI) measures the level of positive peace in 162 countries from 2005 to 2015. The index was constructed on the basis of statistical analysis of over 4,700 variables identified by the IEP to identify attitudes, institutions and structures characteristic of the most peaceful countries. There are the indicators used for the overall PPI score and each of the eight pillars of positive peace.


The criteria for a peaceful and open country are:

A government that works well

  • Democratic political culture: measures if the electoral process, civil liberties, the functioning of government, political participation and culture support secular democracy.

  • Judicial Independence: Measures the extent to which the judiciary is independent of the influences of members of government, citizens or corporations.

  • Revenue collection and service delivery: measures the effectiveness of the national tax system and the territorial coverage of public services and public services.

A healthy business environment

  • index ease of doing business: measurement degree to which the regulatory environment is more conducive to start and operation of a local firm.

  • index economic freedom: measurement individual freedoms and protection freedoms to work, to produce, consuming and invest freely on the part of the state.

  • GDP per capita: GDP per capita

Low level of corruption

  • Factionalized elites: measures the fragmentation of ruling elites and state institutions according to ethnic, class, clan, racial or religious criteria.

  • Corruption Perception Index: scores countries based on perceptions of corruption in the public sector.

  • Corruption control: captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private purposes, including small and large forms of corruption.

High levels of human capital

  • High School Enrollment: The ratio of official school-age children enrolled at school to the corresponding official school age population.

  • Scientific publications: number of scientific publications per 100,000 people.

  • Youth Development Index: The IDJ measures status of 15-29 years in five key areas: education, health and well-being, employment, civic participation and political participation.

Free flow of information

  • Freedom of the press index: a composite measure of the degree of freedom of print media, broadcasting and the internet.

  • Mobile subscription rate: The number of mobile subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.

  • World Press Freedom Index: ranks countries on the basis of pluralism and independence of the media, respect for the safety and freedom of journalists and the legislative, institutional and infrastructural environment in which the media operate. Media.

Equitable distribution of resources

  • Index of life expectancy adjusted for inequality: The index of life expectancy of the adjusted HDI for inequality ranks countries according to both average life expectancy and degree of inequality of life expectancy between groups.

  • Social mobility: measures the potential for upward social mobility based on the extent to which merit or social networks determine an individual's success.

  • Poverty gap: Average poverty line deficit at $ 2 per day PPP (counting the non-zero deficit as a zero deficit) expressed as a percentage of the poverty line.

  • "Institute for Economics and Peace | Analysing peace and quantifying its economic value." Institute for Economics and Peace Home Comments. Accessed December 13, 2017. http://economicsandpeace.org/.

Acceptance of the rights of others

  • Empowerment Index: An additive index using the indicators of freedom of movement, freedom of expression, workers' rights, political participation and freedom of religion.

  • Classification of group grievances: measures the extent and severity of grievances between groups in society, including religious, ethnic, sectarian and political discrimination and division.

Gender Inequality Index: The Gender Inequality Index (GII) reflects the disadvantages of women in terms of dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labor market.

Positive Peace is the way to achieve Sustainable Peace and it has a strong correlation with the SDG


April 2016 marks the major switch of the UN in the way to achieve peace and eliminate conflicts with the introduction of sustainable peace. This fundamental shift focuses on preventing conflicts via the identification of the factors that foster peace and building resilient societies. This fits perfectly with the spirit and idea of positive peace.

IEP’s Positive Peace Index is a measurement tools for conceptualising, tracking and supporting the key drivers of peace. PPI shows that there is a strong correlation between Positive Peace and the SDG. Hence, this proves that there would be no sustainable peace without sustainable development and no sustainable development without sustainable peace

“Negative Peace is the absence of violence or fear of violence-and one which enables peace to be most easily measured.”


“Positive Peace: Well-developed Positive Peace represents the capacity for a society to meet the needs of its citizens, reduce the number of grievances that arise and resolve remaining disagreements without the use of violence.


Positive peace includes 8 pillars which describe the attitudes, institutions and structures that underpin peaceful peaceful societies


“Of the 169 targets of the SGDs, there are many which focus on addressing the drivers of violence”, which is Positive Peace in IEP.

IEP terms the focuses on the drivers of peace under Goal 16 including governance, inequalities and institutions, as the Positive Peace or the “attitudes, institutions and structures which create and sustain peaceful societies.” The outcome of Goal 16 is Positive Peace, which was empirically developed a framework including 8 pillars.


Goal 16 cannot be separated from the other goals in the SDGs, and it does not apply only to conflict-affected countries.

Of 169 targets in the SGDs. 85% are relevant to at least two Positive Peace factors. Low levels of corruption is only relevant to three targets


High levels of Human Capital and Well-functioning Government are relevant to over half of the 169 targets in the SDGs, because these factors most directly related to development outcomes and the governance required to bring about effective service distribution


2017 Positive Peace Index also point out the strong relationship between positive peace and development.




4. Why Should We Invest in Peace


a. Economic cost of violence

IEP developed a methodology to estimate the cost of violence to the global economy by using ten indicators from the Global Peace Index (GPI) and three additional key areas of expenditure. According to the research, the economic cost of violence estimation in 2012 is $9.46 trillion, in which $4.73 of direct and indirect costs. This total cost is equivalent to 11 percent of the World GDP, or double the value of world agricultural production.

15% of expenditure on violence would be enough for the European Stability Fund, repay Greece’s debt and cover the increase in funding required to achieve the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals.


Military expenses account for 51 percent of total violence cost when excludes many other forms of violence without available data. The world’s spending on military is 12 times spending on foreign aid according to the Official Development Assistance. Besides military spending, homicides account for 15 percent of total impact and spending on internal security officers and police accounts for about 14 percent of violence costs. It is obvious that the more a nation spends on violence, the more they could spend these money on more productive economic activity. Consequently, money that is spent on violence not only take away potential sufficient economic activity, but also constrain a nation’s economic growth. In terms of percentage of GDP, among 79 countries in this research, North Korea spends the most on violence containment with 27.5% of GDP. Syria’s ongoing conflict makes it the country that spends the second most on violence containment costs with 24% of GDP. Though homicide costs and internal security were significant at the same time, North Korea’s military spending accounts 70 percent of their expenditure on violence. Internal conflict takes over 50 percent of Syria’s violence costs. Its military and internal security cost respectively account for 16 and 14 percent. In terms of value, United States, China and Russia are countries with the biggest costs of violence. Most of their costs were from military spending with the leading country that spends the most on

b. Economic benefit of peace

Based on these findings, the traditional myth about the economic benefits of war has soon been replaced by the increasing encourage for peacebuilding. The two cases were mentioned in the research is Sierra Leone, which has suffered in both substantial loss of life and economic activity. “The benefit of peace is not just simply the absence of violence, but it involves the creation of those institutions and structures that encourage greater resilience and foster human development.”


Under conditions where the programs paying for violence become more economically viable over long and medium terms making argument for the economic benefit cost for peace even stronger. The clear and obvious dividends that peace pays are the greater well being and lower expenditure on violence containment; Reduce violence containment expenditure; increased productivity and reductions in violence; and invest in the underlying institutions which encourage peace. “Understanding the myth of economic benefit of violence, but more importantly the economic benefit of peace could help policy makers and business holders direct current limited resources in the right direction and help society make long term investments in the creation of a virtuous cycle of peace and economic prosperity.” P. 9


In general, the program indicators seem positive on investments and on the eradication of the problems mentioned above. Through their investments the stakeholders will allow the creation of a strong humanity, contrary to a sick society, deprived of its rights, of its vital needs and consequently not able to make the economy run, but rather of the leaden. The cost of conflict, neglecting the importance of the environment and respect for humanity, can have a far greater impact in the long run than the basic investment that promises a flourishing economy.


The Secretary General announced that for the implementation of the 2030 program, funding remained the last part of the equation.The inadequacy of the United Nations peacebuilding resources needs to be improved, flexible and predictable. Its funding should be privileged for the peacebuilding fund, where the global instrument for accelerating action for women, peace and security and humanitarian aid, which avoids the pitfalls of silo financing, although collaboration is still present, there is a compartmentalized nature of the work of United Nations funds and programs.


The United Nations must follow the Addis Ababa Action Program that is expanding its funding.

The return with the private sector on business alignment in the green economy shows that the implementation of the 2030 program already provides revenues and savings of more than tens of trillions of dollars. Developed countries will have to help developing countries to access technologies and markets, through national financing mechanisms, reform of tax systems and fight against illicit financial flows.International financial institutions must help access financial markets and foreign direct investment. Official development assistance (ODA) and humanitarian aid must act in accordance with identified risks and needs. Without it, the lack of resources is a threat to the relationship of the SDG's. It's a story of knowing where to put the priorities, countries should reduce their military budgets and invest in education, health and sustainable development

Improve the coherence of public action

Given the multidimensional nature of the SDGs, bridges need to be built between the different policy areas. The OECD already takes into account the multidimensional nature of various topics across a range of horizontal projects and international initiatives. Its framework for policy coherence for sustainable development identifies potential synergies and trade-offs between economic, social and environmental policy areas.

The SDGs provide a solid foundation from which to build resilient societies, address humanitarian emergencies and reduce the risks of instability and shocks, including in the most difficult situations.

The OECD helps countries analyze the policies and approaches they adopt when it comes to working in complex contexts to ensure that they are fit for purpose.

Promote investment in sustainable development

Given the ambitious scope of the SDGs, unprecedented funding will be needed. New resources must be harnessed, and commitments must be measured and tracked. Achieving sustainable development in the long term will necessarily involve private investment. The OECD Investment Action Framework is a comprehensive and systematic approach to improving investment conditions and an ideal instrument for mobilizing private resources.

The OECD is also working with developing countries on many fronts to help them mobilize domestic resources.

Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is monitored and evaluated by the OECD, will remain a central component of the financing portfolio of many developing countries, particularly the poorest countries. . In addition, the new framework for measuring total public support for sustainable development (SPTDD), developed by the OECD, reflects a wide range of resources in support of sustainable development that complement ODA.

Support inclusive growth and well-being

The SDGs promise sustainable development in motion everywhere and for the benefit of all.

The OECD's Well-being and Progress Framework does not stop at the notion of GDP growth; developing countries are increasingly using this framework to identify and assess the development challenges facing them. Other OECD projects, such as the OECD Inclusive Growth Initiative, Multi-Dimensional Country Reviews, Regional Policy Assessment Programs or Social Protection and Inclusion Projects , they also integrate the dimension of well-being.

In particular, the OECD works to achieve the SDGs for women and girls across a range of partnerships and programs. It also proposes strong and comprehensive strategies for the integration of migrants and their children.

Ensure the sustainability of the planet

Achieving the SDGs requires a balance between socio-economic advances, conservation of the planet's resources and ecosystems, and the fight against climate change.

The OECD works with its members, partner countries and other stakeholders to ensure sound environmental management conducive to sustainable prosperity and economic development, while ensuring the security and resilience of communities. . For example, with the World Water Council, the OECD has created a High Level Group on Financing Infrastructure for Global Water Security.

The OECD monitors international climate finance and shares its knowledge of its flows and the implications of choosing a particular method for estimating climate finance.



5. The Importance of Partnership

Regarding the implementation of the 17 objectives, we end up with broad but non-binding means.

First The Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the final document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, provides for concrete policies and actions to support the implementation of the new program.

It still remains to ensure that the monitoring of the action can be put in place and a predictable investment from our partners.


The parties involved to promote these objectives

Through advocacy, multi-stakeholder partnerships need to be strengthened as an important element of strategies to mobilize all stakeholders - governments, civil society, the private sector and other actors - around the realization of the new agenda. .

A revitalized global partnership to support national efforts, a recognized need in the 2030 Agenda (Goal 17).

Very good question from the Chairman of the Peacebuilding Committee:

Where to start ? Peace or development? With whom ? Civil society, the private sector, parliaments, women? What is the mechanism that will enable us to achieve universal peace? How to make room for young people?


Governments demand real political will to tackle inequality, the green economy, the protection of the planet, and invest

"Financially and intellectually", in lasting peace around the world. States seem to be the first to be involved in the program, and national ownership of sustainable development will naturally follow. Where there is a will, political leaders can accomplish great things.

The implementation of the program and the achievement of objectives will therefore depend on sustainable development policies, plans and programs. The Sustainable Development Goals will provide countries with benchmarks to align their plans with their global commitments. Country-owned and country-led sustainable development strategies will require resource mobilization and financing strategies.

  • United Nations: National governance can do this only if it is supported by international governance through a new organization of their budget as well as the use of its tools mentioned above.

  • Private sector through its interest in investing in these goals.

  • Civil society for lack of a broad mobilization and a bottom-up approach, the efforts for this project will not be successful, that is why we must support the NGOs engaged in the field of peace , sustainable human rights and development. Civil society has been able to participate in the negotiation process for the new sustainable development program. A free press and a vibrant civil society.

  • Individuals are through their national ownership through a national participatory process, through their day-to-day use of the state. All members of society must be involved in the effort and bring their stone to the building.

  • Young people have a pivotal role, particularly in countries in conflict, it is through education and the values ​​of the school that we can transform a society and achieve a future peace. School happens to be a significant investment for the individual. Access to productive employment and decent work leads to reduced conflict. Youth plays a leading role in the development of interfaith dialogue initiatives that are now linked to terrorism.

  • Women: their role is important, their empowerment, the role as mediator in conflict prevention and their participation in political decisions and economic and development strategies have been recognized as very strong in the past. general meeting. There is a need for women to design the infrastructure of the 21st century, equal partners who bring valuable ideas and knowledge for the advancement of all, they will bring this innovation that we need, by linking the promotion of women's rights, gender equality with conflict prevention. Where women are emancipated, there is less chance of knowing the war, they play an important role in societies.


A process followed but not binding

How will progress be monitored in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals?

At the global level, the 17 goals and 169 sustainable development targets of the new program will be monitored and reviewed on the basis of global indicators.

Each year at the United Nations, a meeting will be established by the High Level Policy Forum for Sustainable Development to take stock of progress at a global level. He will also study gaps and emerging issues. And will recommend corrective measures.


Non-binding

  • The annual meetings of the High-Level Political Forum for Sustainable Development will be an essential part of the process of reviewing progress towards the global sustainable development goals. The means to achieve these goals will be monitored and reviewed as outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the outcome document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, to ensure • The Sustainable Development Goals are not legally binding, each country is responsible for setting up a national framework to achieve the 17 goals through sustainable development policies, plans and programs. It is the responsibility of countries to monitor and review, at the national, regional and global levels, the progress that will be made in the next 15 years in terms of goals and targets, for which purpose they will define their own national indicators to help monitor progress

  • Directors of Member States' statistical offices are working on target setting with the objective of having two indicators for each target. There will be around 300 indicators for all targets. However, the number of indicators can be reduced when the targets relate to cross-cutting issues.

  • Monitoring and review will be based on an annual report on the Sustainable Development Goals that the Secretary-General will pthat financial resources are effectively mobilized to support the new sustainable development agenda.

  • The annual meetings of the High-Level Political Forum for Sustainable Development will be an essential part of the process of reviewing progress towards the global sustainable development goals. The means to achieve these goals will be monitored and reviewed as outlined in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the outcome document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development, to ensure that financial resources are effectively mobilized to support the new sustainable development agenda.

The steps countries will take to monitor progress will require timely, high-quality and easily accessible data collection, as well as regional monitoring and review.


OECD (UN body) support for the achievement of objectives

The OECD is assisting the United Nations to ensure the success of the 2030 program by bringing together the knowledge and tools, and unparalleled experience, of:

  • A solid history of work on substantive issues with developed and developing countries.

  • Indicators and systems to track performance.

In addition, OECD partnerships generate synergies between private and public-national and international-as well as donor and developing-country resources that create effective support mechanisms for countries on which they work. to build on a better future.

Their 4 areas of action:

  • Understand OECD strategies and tools through an SDG prism

  • Leverage OECD data to help analyze progress in implementing the SDGs

  • Strengthen OECD support for integrated public policy planning and formulation at the country level, and provide a forum for governments to exchange experiences on governance for the SDGs

  • Reflecting on the implications of the SDGs for OECD external relations

Promote partnerships

Through the collaboration of all, they will be able to release the necessary financial resources, share technologies and build national capacities.

The OECD provides a platform for dialogue and exchange. Together with UNDP, it supports the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, which brings together all stakeholders around the same table to discuss development issues on an equal footing.



6. Conclusion

Based on the UN’ strategy from SDG and the work of IEP, it is undeniable that there is a very strong relationship between sustainable development and sustainable peace. “There can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development.” In order to promote both peace and development, actions need to be called from all entities to form strong partnership.


This report also shows findings of violence and fragility on a global scale and opens a new path for policy makers. It also analyzes how aid is being provided to states and societies affected by fragility, and proposes a new way of promoting it to better optimize development, prevent crises and build resilience. It brings a new perspective on the role of violence, which, often associated with protracted political crises and underdevelopment, is a source of fragility. It can also contribute to finding ways to support and stimulate local forms of resilience and to manage risks differently.


Violence and fragility sow destruction in existences and human societies, and prevent individuals from fully realizing their potential. Violence hinders development, hinders post-conflict recovery, increases the risk of fragility, and fuels devastating new cycles of violence. The world of today, already fragile, could become even more so, under the effect of the likely intensification of the pressures to which it will be subjected because of the climate change, the fragility of the cities and the regionalization of the violence and conflict. An error of assessment on our part would not only result in the continuation of the unsatisfactory situation as it exists today, but could worsen it considerably. It is imperative that we seize the opportunity to reduce the burden of violence and fragility.


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