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Social and Sustainable Development

Updated: Jan 12, 2022

by Aya Taqi (December, 2020)

Table of Contents


Social Development: What Does it Mean & How it Differs from Other Approaches

Origins of Social Development

Social Development Milestones

Social Development and Sustainable Development: The Connection

Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform

Right-wing Complaints




In the fast-paced technological world, we live in, sustainable development is as important as ever because of globalization and its effects on the environment. As a society, we have managed to successfully establish cross-border trade of goods, services, people, investments, and information, resulting in the interconnection of different economies and systems. We have invested in technology, trade, business, and weapons in the hopes to develop as a nation. With a click of a button we are able to accomplish so much, however, all of this is appearing to be useless without social development and the participation of society in a deeper sense. Global issues like climate change, nuclear proliferation, disease and conflict can only be solved by citizens coming together and taking informed action. However, because of the deteriorating state of our environment, we have to integrate environmental conscious development processes to fully achieve social development and progress as a society.

Social Development: What Does it Mean & How it Differs from Other Approaches

Social development is about improving the potential of every individual in society so they can reach their goals. When referring to social development, the success of society is connected to the well-being of each citizen. Social development emphasizes the need to invest in people early to ensure success later on in life. For instance, if someone is provided with good quality education from a young age, they will grow up to be qualified to enter the workforce, and make a suitable salary to meet their needs and wants as well as provide for their family. The inclusion of good quality education in someone’s life ensures they are capable of joining the workforce, bettering society as a whole. Social development varies from investments in education, businesses, youth programs or communities, the important factor is that it must make some sort of contribution to the economic prosperity of the society. This theory of social development could also be applied in regards to the reduction of poverty, when we take a social development approach and invest in people, poverty can be reduced because people are armed with the education and skills they need to succeed in our world. Social development focuses on the need to address the causes of social problems that create insecurity in the lives of communities all over the world. A Nelson Mandela quote, “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” perfectly sums up the concept of social development and how it has a domino effect, one thing leads to the other, ideally resulting in a better world.

The following is a list of social development issues the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs[1] raises awareness of and advocates for:

  • Ageing

  • Civil Society

  • Cooperatives

  • Disability

  • Employment

  • Family

  • Indigenous Peoples

  • Inequality

  • Poverty

  • Social Inclusion

  • Sport for Development and Peace

  • Youth

Social development can be compared to other approaches such as social philanthropy, social work and social administration, as they are all institutionalized approaches for promoting social well-being[2] but it is important to note that these approaches are not the same. Social philanthropy is all about private donations and non-profit organizations whereas, social work relies on professional experts to achieve goals by working with individuals and communities and guiding them. Lastly, social administration relies on governmental intervention through social services.

There are certain characteristics of social development that differentiate it from others, James Midgley points out in his book Social Development: The Developmental Perspective in Social Welfare the eight characteristics which set social development apart from other approaches.

  • Economic development aspect: Social development differs from other social welfare approaches because it is connected to economic development, especially through social policy.

  • Interdisciplinary focus: Social development has an interdisciplinary focus, pulling from various social sciences which other approaches do not utilize. Social development deals with interventions at both the national and international level, it is largely influenced by the political economy and it addresses values and beliefs.

  • Social development is a process, meaning there is a notion of growth and change which is explicit. When discussing social development, there are two stages, before and after, and when the development is achieved, the result is positive change.

  • Progressive in nature: because of the nature of social development, it is progressive in nature. There is progress in social development interventions, the end goal is achieved after careful planning and numerous efforts.

  • Social development is an interventionist process, in its essence it is an organized effort to bring about improvements in social wellbeing, “the process of social development is, therefore, directed by human beings who implement specific plans and strategies to foster social development goals.”[3]

  • Social development is fostered through different strategies, there are numerous ways to promote social development, including access to good quality education and an affordable high quality child care system.

  • Social development is universalistic in its scope as it is concerned with the population as a collective and not just needy people, which other approaches tend to focus on more. Although social development is particularly interested in those who have been neglected by economic growth, the end goal is to promote wellbeing for all.

  • Social development emphasizes social well being: the purpose of social development is to promote social well being, whereas other institutionalized approaches are more focused on the charity aspect.

When referring to the term development, people are quick to assume economic development, but development applies to political, social and technological progress as well. These different sectors are so intertwined and interdependent that it has become difficult to separate them. It is important to note that economic development and human development are not the same thing. Policies aimed at greater growth may produce greater income in a country without improving the living standard. A real life example of this is oil rich countries in the Middle East, oil prices boost the country’s national income with no real benefit to poorer citizens. Asef Bayat explains how social development efforts in the Middle East is not impacting everyone equally in Social Movements, Activism and Social Development in the Middle East:

The free market economy has made consumer commodities available and enriched society’s upper strata, while increasing income disparity. Many Middle Eastern states have retreated from the traditional social responsibilities that characterized their early populist development. Most social provisions have been undermined and poor people must rely on themselves for survival. For example, the Egyptian government, after some delays, began to implement the recommendations of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to “adjust” the economy. Subsidies on basic food stuffs such as rice, sugar and cooking oil have been removed; and on items such as fuel, electricity and transport, subsidies have been reduced (Bayat, 2000).[4]

Origins of Social Development

The term social development became popularized in the 1950s and was used to describe the interventions taken on social problems and needs.[5] Social development attracted international attention after the term was first articulated by the British government in the context of economic planning and popularized by the United Nations.[6] Traditionally, social welfare has been promoted through income transfers and social services, social development on the other hand, incorporates economic growth through the implementation of projects that combine economic and social activities, creating participation for development and investing in individuals.[7] The idea of social development matches older beliefs rooted in achieving social progress through human agency.

Many believe the aftermath of the Second World War is what caused the governments of nations who were newly sovereign from European imperial rule to be interested in the concept of social development.[8] Poverty and deprivation was apparent in the lives of many after the Second World War which nations were trying to replace with peace and tolerance, “In its broadest connotation, the term social development reflected this optimistic view of human progress but in a narrow and more practical way, it referred to a number of interventions that had been introduced in the Global South at the end of the colonial era to promote social welfare through economic development.”[9]

The United Nations Charter of 1945, Chapter IX, Article 55 makes a commitment to foster “higher standards of living, employment and conditions of economic and social progress and development.”[10] The United Nations played a major role in promoting social development and still continues to do so by advocating for community development. Community development appealed to the governments of newly independent countries because it addressed the needs of rural people which made up the majority of the population, while contributing to economic development.[11] The United Nations also contributed to social development by introducing social planning giving “expression to the interventionist principle that social wellbeing can best be achieved when governments use planning to raise standards of living and provide services that meet health, education, housing and other social needs.”[12] The United Nations is seen as the leader of the promotion of social development but other international organizations like the World Bank, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization have contributed to the concept by encouraging member states to enact social development policies.

Social Development Milestones

The rapid processes of change, a result of globalization, have resulted in enhanced communications, technological developments and economic growth. At the same time, it has been accompanied by intensified poverty, unemployment, social disintegration and the increasing environmental risk. All these reasons compelled the United Nations to invite the heads of state and government to recognize the significance of social development and human well-being for all and to give to these goals the highest priority, marking the first social development milestone in Copenhagen.

The table below is a detailed timeline of how social development conferences and global frameworks have evolved over time:

UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) 1992

The Earth Summit took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The summit aimed at getting Member States to work together on developmental issues after the Cold War. Issues relating to sustainability are too complex for individual Member States to handle and so the summit emphasized collaboration and partnerships. At the end of the conference, 178 governments voted to adopt the proposed program.

Agenda 21, the product of the summit, is a non-binding action plan developed by the United Nations in regards to sustainable development. Agenda 21 suffers the most propaganda and mis-information of all these milestones, being largely misunderstood. Essentially, Agenda 21 aims to achieve global sustainable development by encouraging every local government to draw its own local Agenda 21. There is nothing in it about taking away people’s rights and freedoms.

World Summit for Social Development 1995

The World Summit for Social Development (WSSD), was held in Copenhagen for six days and brought together the leaders of over 118 countries to prepare a Programme of Action which plans to alleviate and reduce poverty, expand productive employment and enhance social integration. The Social Summit was the largest gathering of world leaders at the time, with participation from 117 heads of governments and states. Governments reached a consensus to put people at the centre of development at WSSD and by the end of the summit a Declaration and Programme of Action which represented the new consensus was adopted.

During the WSSD, world leaders agreed on the Copenhagen Declaration, the ten commitments, and the Programme of Action. The Declaration vows to create a framework of action for various topics including the right to ensuring equity, promoting the universal respect for human rights, self determination, women empowerment, creating a better life for older people, the return of prisoners of war and more. The framework is committed to “a political, economic, ethical and spiritual vision for social development that is based on human dignity, human rights, equality, respect, peace, democracy, mutual responsibility and cooperation, and full respect for the various religious and ethical values and cultural backgrounds of people.” The ten commitments are as follows [13]

  1. Create an economic, political, social, cultural and legal environment that will enable people to achieve social development;

  2. Eradicate absolute poverty by a target date to be set by each country;

  3. Support full employment as a basic policy goal;

  4. Promote social integration based on the enhancement and protection of all human rights;

  5. Achieve equality and equity between women and men;

  6. Attain universal and equitable access to education and primary health care;

  7. Accelerate the development of Africa and the least developed countries;

  8. Ensure that structural adjustment programmes include social development goals;

  9. Increase resources allocated to social development;

  10. Strengthen cooperation for social development through the UN.

The Declaration provides more information on each of the commitments and outlines some of the plans on how these will be achieved at both the national and international level. The final piece of document that came out of the WSSD is the Programme of Action. The Programme of Action is split into an introduction and five chapters:

  1. An Enabling Environment for Social Development,

  2. Eradication of Poverty,

  3. Expansion of Productive Employment and Reduction of Unemployment,

  4. Social Integration, and

  5. Implementation and Follow-up.

The Millennium Summit 2000

The Millennium Summit took place in New York City at the United Nations Headquarters. The summit lasted for three days with the purpose to discuss the role of the United Nations in the 21st century. World leaders ratified the United Nations Millennium Declaration, a document of the 8 Millennium Development Goals the UN General Assembly adopted regarding disease, hunger, poverty, illiteracy, discrimination against women and environmental degradation. The Summit focused on how to share the benefits of globalization fairly, and addressed global issues such as poverty. The 189 Member States of the United Nations agreed to help citizens in the world’s poorest countries to achieve a better life by 2015. The framework of the work on this is known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s specialized agency focusing on development, with a mandate supporting countries during their development process. The UNDP created an MDG Scorekeeper to keep track of the progress and achievements. Another important resource is the MDG Country Reports which is one of the best instruments for obtaining nationally-generated MDG-based evidence, and for extracting main challenges and opportunities.[14]

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 2015

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all Member States of the United Nations in 2015. The Agenda provides a plan for peace and prosperity, focusing on both people and the environment, the plan focuses on the present and the future. The plan consists of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), urgently calling for countries to take action. The Agenda recognizes that the need for ending poverty must be supplemented with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and boost economic growth. The SDGs plan to accomplish that while still tackling climate change and the preservation of oceans and forests. The SDGs seek to build on the MDGs and finish what was not completed. The SDGs are more focused on realizing human rights for all, achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls. The SDGs are unquestionably more balanced in terms of the integration of economic, social and environmental development compared to the international framework that preceded it. Also, the 2030 Agenda stresses the importance of partnerships, of all kinds, in a different way than its preceding frameworks. Through the Major Group system, virtually anyone can participate and engage with the SDGs.

Social Development and Sustainable Development: The Connection

The Brundtland Commission Report of 1987, also known as ‘Our Common Future’ was the world’s introduction to the importance of sustainable development because it was not until the commission that people were aware of the severe impact that development often has on the environment. It was not until recent years, when climate change and destruction became more apparent that more people are paying attention.

Sustainable development can be distinguished from social development by looking at the 2030 Agenda and the its concepts of high priority which are;

  1. The importance of peace: Many people in the UN have said that sustainable peace and sustainable development are intertwined and interdependent.

  2. Environmental concerns: the 2030 Agenda warns us that social human development will not succeed in the long run unless we pair development and economic programming with the protection of the environment.

  3. The importance of the interlinkages between the goals for their success

  4. Partnerships: when two or more entities join together to work on an aspect of SDG implementation that interests them

  5. The Major Groups System (MGoS): a formal but open system where the entire world is invited to participate through a system of Major Groups and Stakeholder Groups in the entire 2030 Agenda under the guidance of a UN agency (UN DESA). Thus the UN has opened a major high level process for the entire world to take part in, an astounding and unprecedented step in inclusiveness, transparency and collaboration as these groups will be working together alongside the highest levels of government toward the successful implementation of the SDGs.

With the current deteriorating state of the environment, experts suggested that development can not be achieved unless it is integrated with environmental protection. This makes sustainable development a step up from social development, because it recognizes the damaging consequences that may arise out of development and seeks to eradicate them, and that is where the two concepts relate. The 2030 SDG Agenda brought this to the forefront of many different governments and nations and it is now realized globally that without environmental protection, development is not sustainable. Because of this, development measures are assessed for how consistent they may be with environmental protection. The UN World Commission on Environment and Development which produced the Brundtland Report defined sustainable development as “a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations”[15] The key concept here is the word future, unlike social development, sustainable development concerns itself with where the world is headed to as well as the present state. Sustainable development incorporates all the different aspects of development, while still taking into consideration the environmental factor.

There is a lot of overlap between the concepts of social development and sustainable development, for instance both concepts strive for overall well-being of people, and people’s participation and empowerment.[16] The UK government explains this similarity in a publication about their sustainable development strategy.[17]

Sustainable development is about ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come. It means a more inclusive society in which the benefits of increased economic prosperity are widely shared, with less pollution and less wasteful use of natural resources. To know whether we are meeting that goal, we need to be able to measure what is happening and monitor progress (Eliott, 2006).

The two concepts differ in terms of their relationship with economic prosperity, sustainable development asks more of a person than sustainable development, Johnson explains this,

"Sustainable development does not mean sustained economic growth. It is not just 'business as usual.' To have sustainable development, there must be a shift in priorities and values from the prevailing growth-centred, consumer driven philosophy to one which values nature, promotes conservation, minimizes waste, reduces consumption and protects the environment" (Johnson et al., 1994, p. 5).[18]

Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform

The United Nations took the importance of participation to another level with their interactive website ( People participation is emphasized throughout this website for the 2030 agenda, as the preamble states, “a spirit of strengthened global solidarity, focused in particular on the needs of the poorest and most vulnerable and with the participation of all countries, all stakeholders and all people.” This is exactly what the UN is trying to achieve with their website - it is the center point of the 2030 Agenda.

The website was developed by and is managed by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), and is organized using tabs that cover eight different sections shown in the image below.


Under this tab, users can find an overview of the work that the United Nations is involved in regarding the sustainable development goals, including recent developments that have taken place. A calendar with events is also available for users to utilize, the events range from conferences to workshops that the public can attend and which SDG it directly corresponds to. Users can also find a list of 17 SDGs and a brief summary on what each goal is about.

SDG Knowledge

This tab consists of everything anyone needs to know about the 2030 Agenda; the SDGs, Key Topics, the 2030 Agenda, Capacity Development, Publications and Global Sustainable Development Reports.

Under the Key Topics section, users can find a list of each of the 36 topics that the 17 SDGs are based on and bring together, along with a description, related SDGs and background information. The section on each of the 36 topics includes the history of the work on that particular topic by the UN since 1945, the establishment of the UN. This is a great tool for researchers and the general public. The same goes for the Publications section, it is a great resource to read previous research done on the 2030 Agenda and its implementation so far. Finally, under this tab users can find the Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR) which is a UN publication aiming to strengthen the science-policy interface at the HLPF on Sustainable Development. The GSDR provides a strong evidence-based instrument for policymakers promoting poverty eradication and sustainable development.

Intergovernmental Process

The Intergovernmental Process tab is all about the different forums and conferences that are working on Agenda 2030 and the SDGs including; the HLPF on Sustainable Development, UN conferences and High-Level events related to sustainable development, Multi-stakeholder Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs, Second Committee of the UN General Assembly, SAMOA Pathway and ECOSOC Partnership Forum. Clicking on the respective forum/body will redirect users to a detailed page displaying the history of the forum, how it operates and includes any relevant documents.


This section is about small island developing states (SIDS) and SDG 13, which concerns urgent action to combat climate change. SIDS have their own “peculiar vulnerabilities and characteristics” which this page outlines. The work being done in regards to SIDS is a big part of the SDGs because it is all about climate change and a more sustainable lifestyle.


The partnership tab focuses on multi-stakeholder partnerships and voluntary commitments. The SDGs are all about organizations and people from different walks of life working together and this page is about the facilitation process. Different sectors and actors working together in an integrated manner will need help finding financial resources, knowledge and expertise. Cross sectorial and innovative multi-stakeholder partnerships play a crucial role in achieving Agenda 2030 and this page has all the information required on the matter.


The Engage section is an important tab in the UN SDG website, because that is where members of civil society and other stakeholders can actively participate and engage with the SDG framework. Under this tab, people can read up on previous events and participate in upcoming events, online webinars, States Members of the United Nations and States members of specialized agencies who are participating and a list of stakeholders.

People can also learn about and utilize the UN System under the engage tab. The UN System is a broad-based inter-agency coordination mechanism, which brings together 50+ UN entities (including Funds and Programmes, Regional Commissions, Convention Secretariats, Specialized Agencies, International Financial Institutions, the WTO and IOM) and UN research institutes.

The United Nations is inviting the entire world to participate in the 2030 agenda through the Major Groups and Other Stakeholders (MGoS) initiative. Thus individuals can start their own major group or join ones already established and then get the opportunity to engage with member-states and other stakeholders in the High-Level Political Forum, and can also register with the other self-organized Major Groups and other Stakeholders in the MGoS Coordination Mechanism (MGoS) which works together on shared issues in the 2030 agenda and the HLPF. The creation of MGoS in UN Resolution 67/290 ensures the UN is putting people at the center of their sustainable development efforts.

News & About

The last two tabs, News & About, are generic to almost any website and contain updates on SDGs in the global scale and are updated frequently. The About page provides brief information on UN DESA - it’s mission statement, policy analysis and explains the importance of inter-agency coordination and UN mobilization to support sustainable development strategies. The main purpose of this page is to introduce the work of the UN DESA and how the agency acts as a Secretariat for the SDGs, providing substantive support and capacity-building for the goals related issues. UN DESA plays a key role in the evaluation of UN implementation of the 2030 Agenda as well as advocating and doing outreach for the SDGs.

Right-wing Complaints

Some right-wing groups have been quick to judge sustainable development efforts. The John Birch Society is known for the demonization of international sustainable development frameworks like the 2030 Agenda and Agenda 21, claiming it is “destructive and insidious scheme” that is meant to impose a “socialist/communist redistribution of wealth.”[19] This propaganda is extremely dangerous to be spreading, because not only are the claims about sustainable development false, but it can tarnish any real conversation of the challenges we face as a society, challenges that we must tackle in an increasingly stressed world.

The John Birch Society has been transforming the 2030 Agenda in the minds of Americans, making far-fetched claims that the SDGs are anti-human, anti-freedom and plan to take money from the middle class and “subsume your country into a global system.”[20] The group has also claimed that China’s role in the new development plan should alarm citizens, comparing the 2030 Agenda to the Great Leap Forward launched under Mao which led to the death of millions of innocent people. Much of the concern the group has surrounds the myth that the UN’s Agenda 2030 is supposedly going to be promoting global socialism, redistributing wealth by taking money from the middle class and then giving it to the “dictators club” which is what they refer to the United Nations as.

To believe that the Agenda 2030 is “an agenda for totalitarianism at the global scale” or that the sustainable development goals are “radical” is extremely untrue and counterproductive, not only does it endanger what international frameworks seek to achieve - prosperity for all, but inciting such false and outlandish conspiracy theories have the ability to do some serious damage. The SDGs are not a treaty that needs to be ratified by the U.S. Senate, it has no enforcement mechanism or force of law. It does not have penalties if not followed, instead it is a framework with the purpose to encourage nations around the world to come up with their own nationalized solutions to issues like pollution, poverty and resource depletion. The 2030 Agenda does not force anyone to do anything and so it cannot be “brainwashing” as the John Birch Society claims.

Another right-wing opponent of the 2030 agenda and Agenda 21 is Rosa Koire, a retired forensic commercial real estate appraiser. Although she identifies as a democrat, she has an extremist right-wing opinion in regards to sustainable development. Over the course of the years she became aware of UN Agenda 21 and then the SDGs and claims that her research reveals incorrectly that funding to implement local SDGs and sustainable development programs comes from the diversion of property taxes to redevelopment agencies. [21] Koire’s work revolves around helping communities fight SDGs, “as more people become aware of the increased restrictions on their property rights, and the methods used to implement social engineering.”[22] Koire has established a website ( as well as an organization, Santa Rosa Neighborhood Coalition and uses her platform to help community leaders “come together and fight the source: UN Agenda 21/Sustainable Development.” She has also authored a book, Behind the Green Mask: U.N. Agenda 21 which is a how-to manual in fighting the UN Agenda 21.

Contrary to what these far-right opinions on sustainable development claim, the 2030 Agenda will not establish a “new world order” and it will not lead to the demise of the American economy as some promise. Both Agenda 21 and the SDGs seek to address global and social issues with economic dimensions like environmental conservation, women empowerment and education for all. There is no mention of sovereignty, global currency or the eradication of property rights, distinguishing Agenda 2030 from the “new world order.” The SDGs call for equality, universal healthcare, access to land and other forms of property for poor and vulnerable people and more. The 2030 Agenda does not mention global sovereignty over any of these suggestions like some right-wing commentators have suggested.


Social development is a concept that has been with us for decades, formally introduced at the World Summit in Copenhagen, we have witnessed how different scholars and experts engaged with social development and how the concept itself has progressed with time, expanding and becoming more detailed. Through the decades, different conferences and documents have been created at the international level and organizations and UN bodies established with the sole mission of supporting social development efforts. One of these changes is the integration of environmental protection with development, known as sustainable development. The most perfect illustration of sustainable development are the SDGs, which have clearly shaped the future of social development. The SDGs place a heavy emphasis on the environmental issues in addition to the social ones, and this is being questioned by critics, particularly right wing organizations. Although the SDGs place an extreme value on the environment, the purpose of the Agenda is to improve overall well-being for all.

The downside to extensive international frameworks like the 2030 Agenda is that progress is difficult to track. Progress and implementation have to be managed and reported on to fully grasp how these projects are making a difference. With such large-scale projects, a formal mechanism for keeping track of progress is essential, and the UN has created such mechanisms to monitor the SDGs. According to General Assembly resolution A/RES/71/313, the indicator framework is thus created for this purpose, and is refined and reviewed annually by the United Nations Statistical Commission ( The global indicator framework consists of almost 200 indicators at both the regional and national levels, which were developed by Member States in collaboration with civil society and other stakeholders to ensure they are as specific as possible.

The 2030 Agenda is non-binding, meaning it is not enforceable thus guaranteeing that all governments will make a commitment in achieving the goals and so progress should be publicized. Also, the power difference between governments should be noted. Powerful governments with larger international influence will be able to protect their own interests when making international commitments by picking and choosing what suits their nationalist needs best.

The 2030 Agenda is a robust social development strategy, however, it has some minor issues that have the ability to weaken the framework. These drawbacks must be addressed so that the SDGs can be implemented successfully. The SDGs provide an ambitious future agenda for social development, which nations can achieve if they work together to mobilize policy makers, academics, experts and people to fully engage with the SDGs but to make the development plan even stronger, world leaders must devote time to addressing some of the setbacks that come with the existing framework.

It is also important to note that the United Nations invites the entire world to participate through the MGoS System in the Agenda 2030 framework, regardless of the fact if people are members of civil society or not, this emphasis and inclusion of people is a step in the right direction because it is doing precisely what social development asks - put people in the center.


[1] “Issues | DISD,” United Nations (United Nations), accessed September 15, 2020,

[2] James Midgley, Social Development: The Developmental Perspective in Social Welfare (London: Sage, 1999),

[3] Ibid.

[4] Asef Bayat , “Social Movements, Activism and Social Development in the Middle East ”(United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 2000), pp. 1-35.

[5] James Midgley, Manohar S. Pawar, and James Midgley , “Social Development in Historical Context ,” in Future Directions in Social Development (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), pp. 21-39.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] United Nations, “Charter of the United Nations,” 1945, 1 UNTS XVI, available at:

[11] James Midgley, Manohar S. Pawar, and James Midgley , “Social Development in Historical Context ,” in Future Directions in Social Development (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), pp. 21-39.

[12] Ibid.

[14] “Millennium Development Goals,” UNDP, accessed September 24, 2020, & MDG Country Reports

[15] World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[16] M. Kramer, Joyce, and Claude D. Johnson. “Sustainable Development and Social Development: Necessary Development: Necessary Partners for the Future .” The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 27, 23 (1996).

[17] Elliott, Jennifer A. An Introduction to Sustainable Development. London: Routledge, 2006.

[18] Johnson, C., Korol, R., & Perks, A. (1994). CSCE guidelines for civil engineering practice with a commitment to a sustainable future. Proceedings of the 1994 CSCE Annual ConferenceI, 729-738. (Available from Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Headquarters, 2050 Mansfield, Suite 700, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1Z2.)

[19] “Agenda 21: The UN, Sustainability and Right-Wing Conspiracy Theory.” Southern Poverty Law Center, April 1, 2014.

[20] “Stop Agenda 2030,” The John Birch Society, September 29, 2020,

[21] Rosa Koire, “Democrats Against UN Agenda 21,” Rosa Koire - Behind The Green Mask, accessed October 1, 2020,

[22] Ibid.


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