The nine topics of the nine chapters of the Online Journal for Modern Peacebuilding and Nonviolence are linked thematically as much as they are complex topics in their own right. The purpose of this side note is two-fold - to first remind us of those interlinkages and then to explore this topic in greater depth to provide greater explanation for the interlinkages.
The Interlinkages ....
In these chapters we have discussed Galtung’s theory of peace and violence and then what happened when the United Nations attempted to implement Galtung’s ideas in conflict zones around the world. Also important were the parallels to the UN Program for a Culture of Peace, and the emerging importance of a movement to scientifically measure peacefulness to provide guidelines for Peacebuilding planning. We discussed the relationship of Peacebuilding to nonviolence - how nonviolence is the core nature of peace, and how the study of Peacebuilding leads to the study of five levels of nonviolent action. We also discussed the important parallels and interrelations of Peacebuilding to individual psychology Finally we will discuss the interrelation and interdependence of lasting peace with lasting development, and the corresponding similarities between peace programs and social and sustainable development programs. These similarities point to the interrelationships between sustainable peace and sustainable development - that you cannot have one without the other, and also how peace is therefore the best thing for the economy over war and violence. And then we will discuss the indispensable place of disarmament in Peacebuilding. This is a single theory with Peacebuilding at its center - the idea that you must have equality, justice, inclusiveness and strong democratic institutions in order for peace to last - but that has myriads of detailed facets reflecting the diversity of locations and cultures and histories found across the world. The unified theory is explained in our summary document - Modern Peacebuilding and Nonviolence: Creating Peace that Lasts, while the myriad of details is reflected in our growing body of papers, blogs, videos and expert resources that are linked to in each chapter.
(now the greater detail on this topic; excerpted from Modern Peacebuilding and Nonviolence: Creating Peace that Lasts, by David Kirshbaum….)
Chapter 8. Human Development and Peacebuilding
Human development involves a range of issues from economic and political rights to economic and food security for all equally. Thus at the UN this has developed into two huge movements - first Social Development and then Sustainable Development.
First Social Development came along emphasizing for all equally of the rights and welfare and prosperity for all the disadvantaged and marginalized human groupings(37).
Then Sustainable Development was developed and organized into 17 global goals first implemented in 2015 which emphasized(38):
That all 17 goals were interrelated and interdependent for their successful implementation.
That lasting peace was necessary for successful implementation of the development goals - that development and peace were interrelated and interdependent, and that neither would last without the other lasting.
That the successful lasting implementation of the 17 goals was also dependent on environmental protection - that environmental degradation and climate change not only threatened the implementation of the goals, but was also an existential threat as well.
Successful implementation of the 17 goals would not happen without partnerships across the globe and at every level. Nobody can do it alone or survive on their own unless we all work together on the goals.
This parallels exactly what both Galtung and the UN program for a culture of peace say that peace will not last unless everyone works together - every segment and every level of society are included in the decision-making and implementation.
Another very important concept developed independently especially by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) is that peace is much more economically beneficial than war and conflict. This fits very well with the concept that lasting peace is interdependent with lasting development and prosperity.
To quote IEP(39)
Violence has adverse implications for the broader economy, both in the short and long term, as it hinders productivity and economic activity, destabilises institutions and reduces business confidence. These all disrupt the economy, resulting in adverse and ongoing negative effects well after the conflict subsides. These effects include reduced GDP growth, a less predictable economy, higher levels of unemployment, lower levels of foreign direct investment and higher interest and inflation. The economic cost of violence for the ten most affected countries ranges from 23.5 to 59.1 per cent of their GDP. This is significantly larger than the global country average of 8.5 per cent of GDP. In comparison, the ten most peaceful countries’ average economic cost amounts to 3.9 per cent of their GDP. These differences highlight the large economic benefits from maintaining higher levels of peace.
To read more articles and watch videos about this topic, check out the nonviolenceny.org/journal.